Donald Robert Sadoway’s Resume

Present Position

John F. Elliott Professor of Materials Chemistry
Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Address

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Room 8-203
77 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge MA 02139-4307
telephone: +1.617.253.3487; fax: +1.617.253.5418; email: dsadoway@mit.edu
websites: http://sadoway.mit.edu    http://donaldsadoway.com

Date and Place of Birth

March 7, 1950; Toronto, Ontario, CANADA

Citizenship

United States and Canada

Education

doctor honoris causa, NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 2014
D. Eng., honoris causa, University of Toronto, 2013
Ph.D., Chemical Metallurgy, University of Toronto, 1977
M.A.Sc., Chemical Metallurgy, University of Toronto, 1973
B.A.Sc., Engineering Science, University of Toronto, 1972

Awards and Honors

Norm Augustine Award for Outstanding Achievement in Engineering Communications, 2014
The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society (TMS) Distinguished Lecturer Award, 2013
Time 100 Most Influential People in the World, 2012
Lightspeed Venture Partners Professional Development Award for Research on Grid-Level Energy Storage, 2009, 2011
Honorary Professor of Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 2007
Edward Moore Baker Memorial Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching, 2004
Norwegian Academy of Technological Sciences, elected Member 2001
John F. Elliott Chair in Chemical Metallurgy, 1999 – present
Bose Award for Teaching in the School of Engineering at MIT, 1997
MacVicar Faculty Fellow, 1995 – 2005
AT&T Industrial Ecology Faculty Fellow, 1994 – 1995
MIT Graduate Student Council Teaching Award, 1993, 1988, 1987, 1984, and 1982
Prof. T.B. King Memorial Award, 1986
Alcoa Foundation Professional Development Award, 1980 – 1983
NATO Postdoctoral Research Fellowship, 1977 – 1978

Memberships

The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society, TMS
The Electrochemical Society
The Materials Research Society
International Society of Electrochemistry
The Iron and Steel Society
American Association for the Advancement of Science

Professional Service

Journal of Materials ResearchPrincipal Editor, 1996 – 2001
Journal of Light Metals, Member of Editorial Board, 2001 – 2002

Industrial Experience

Dominion Foundries and Steel Co., Ltd., Hamilton, Ontario, summer, 1971. Research Assistant in the Research Department.

Academic Experience

Professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1992 – present. Courses taught: Introduction to Solid State Chemistry, freshman level; Chemical Metallurgy, senior level; Kinetic Processes in Materials, graduate level; Electrochemical Processing of Materials, graduate level.

Associate Professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1982 – 1992. Courses taught: as above.

Assistant Professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1978 – 1982. Courses taught: as above.

Postdoctoral Fellow in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1977 – 1978.

Teaching Assistant in the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Science, University of Toronto , 1972 – 1976. Courses taught: Metallurgical Thermodynamics; Kinetics of Metallurgical Processes; Electrochemistry; all undergraduate level.

Research Interests

Professor Sadoway’s research seeks to establish the scientific underpinnings for technologies that make efficient use of energy and natural resources in an environmentally sound manner. This spans engineering applications and the supportive fundamental science. The overarching theme of his work is electrochemistry in nonaqueous media.

Specific topics in applied research are the following: environmentally sound electrochemical extraction and recycling of metals, lithium solid-polymer-electrolyte batteries for portable power, high-amperage energy storage devices for stationary applications, advanced materials for use as electrodes in fused-salt electrolysis cells and batteries, electrochemical synthesis of compound semiconductors, and electrochemical synthesis of diamond coatings.

The related fundamental research is the physical chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts (including molten oxides), cryogenic electro­lytes, and solid polymer electrolytes.

Theses

Ph.D., 1977, University of Toronto, “Thermodynamic properties of some alkali-metal hexachloroniobates and hexachlorotantalates, and the separa­tion of tantalum from niobium.”

M.A.Sc., 1973, University of Toronto , “Thermodynamic properties of manganese dichloride in ternary solutions with sodium chloride and cesium chloride.”

B.A.Sc., 1972, University of Toronto, “Thermodynamic properties of the binary solutions, MnCl2-NaCl and MnCl2-CsCl.”

Patents

  1. R.M. Rose and D.R. Sadoway, inventors and assignees, “Cryoelectrodeposition,” U.S. patent no. 4,517,253, May 14, 1985; also issued as Can. patent no. 1,246,001, December 6, 1988.
  2. D.R. Sadoway, inventor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, assignee, “Aluminum Reference Electrode,” U.S. patent no. 4,764,257, August 16, 1988.
  3. D.R. Sadoway and R.P. Singh, inventors, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, assignee, “Method for Forming a Metal Coating on a Substrate,” U.S. patent no. 4,882,199, November 21, 1989.
  4. D.R. Sadoway and R.M. Rose, inventors, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, assignee, “Electrochemically Controlled Superconductivity,” U.S. patent no. 4,911,800, March 27, 1990.
  5. D.R. Sadoway and R.M. Rose, inventors, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, assignee, “Cryoelectrosynthesis,” U.S. patent no. 4,971,663, November 20, 1990.
  6. D.R. Sadoway, inventor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, assignee, “Apparatus and Method for the Electrolytic Production of Metals,” U.S. patent no. 4,999,097, March 12, 1991.
  7. D.R. Sadoway and R.M. Rose, inventors, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, assignee, “Methods for Processing Superconducting Materials,” U.S. patent no. 5,166,131, November 24, 1992.
  8. D.R. Sadoway, inventor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, assignee, “Electrolytic Production of Metals Using Consumable Anodes,” U.S. patent no. 5,185,068, February 9, 1993.
  9. D.R. Sadoway, inventor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, assignee, “Apparatus for the Electrolytic Production of Metals,” U.S. patent no. 5,254,232, October 19, 1993.
  10.  S.L. Schiefelbein, N.A. Fried, K.G. Rhoads, and D.R. Sadoway, inventors, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, assignee, “High Accuracy Calibration-free Electrical Parameter Measurements,” U.S. patent no. 5,489,849, February 6, 1996.
  11. U.B. Pal and D.R. Sadoway, inventors, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, assignee, “Accelerated Decarburization of Fe-C Metal Alloys,” U.S. patent no. 5,632,800, May 27, 1997.
  12. A.M. Mayes, D.R. Sadoway, P. Banerjee, P. Soo, B. Huang, inventors, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, assignee, “Self-doped Microphase Separated Block Copolymer Electrolyte,” U.S. patent no. 6,361,901, March 26, 2002.
  13. Y.-M. Chiang, D.R. Sadoway, Y.-I. Jang, B. Huang, inventors, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, assignee, “Intercalation compounds and electrodes for batteries,” U.S. patent no. 6,787,232, September 7, 2004.
  14. A.M. Mayes, D.R. Sadoway, P.P. Soo, B. Huang, inventors, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, assignee, “Non-crosslinked, Amorphous, Block Copolymer Electrolyte for Batteries,” U.S. patent no. 7,026,071, April 11, 2006.
  15. J.A. Aune, G. Frommeyer, K. Johansen, D.R. Sadoway, G. Soleng, and E.W. Thisted, inventors, Elkem AS, assignee, “Anode for Electrolysis of Aluminum,” U.S. patent no. 7,504,010, March 17, 2009.
  16. K. Johansen, D.R. Sadoway, B. Myhre, M. Engvoll, K. Engvoll, inventors, Elkem AS, assignee, “Method for Electrolytic Production and Refining of Metals, ” U.S. patent no. 7,901,561, March 8, 2011.
  17. D. Sadoway, G. Ceder, and D. Bradwell, “High-amperage energy storage device with liquid metal negative electrode and methods,” U.S. patent no. 8,268,471, Sept. 18, 2012.
  18. D. Bradwell and D.R. Sadoway, “Alkaline Earth Metal Ion Battery,” U.S. Patent no. 8,323,816, Dec. 4, 2012.
  19. A. Allanore and D.R. Sadoway, “Extraction of Liquid Element by Electrolysis of Oxides,” U.S. Patent no. 8,764,962, July 1, 2014.

 

Scientific Papers

  1. D.R. Sadoway and S.N. Flengas, “Charge asymmetrical ternary molten salt systems: theory of dilute solutions,” J. Electrochem. Soc.122, 515 (1975).
  2. D.R. Sadoway and S.N. Flengas, “Vapour pressures of solid and liquid NbCl5 and TaCl5,” Can. J. Chem., 54, 1692 (1976).
  3. D.R. Sadoway and S.N. Flengas, “The synthesis and properties of the hexachloroniobates and hexachlorotantalates of Na, K, Rb, and Cs,” Can. J. Chem., 56, 2013 (1978).
  4. D.R. Sadoway and S.N. Flengas, “Thermodynamic properties of the alkalimetal hexachloroniobate and hexachlorotantalate compounds by vapour pressure measurements,” Can. J. Chem., 56, 2538 (1978).
  5. D.R. Sadoway and S.N. Flengas, “A new process for the separation of tantalum from niobium,” Metall. Trans., B.11B, 57 (1980).
  6. D.R. Sadoway, S.N. Flengas and R.G.V. Hancock, “Quantitative determination of tantalum in niobium by neutron activation analysis,” Can. J. Chem.58, 537 (1980).
  7. D.R. Sadoway and J. Szekely, “A New Experimental Technique for the Study of Turbulence in Electromagnetically Driven Flows,” Metall Trans., B.11B, 334 (1980).
  8. G.B. Kenney, D.R. Sadoway, and M.C. Flemings, “An Assessment of the Potential for Magnesium Penetration of the U.S. Automotive Market,” Proc. 37th Ann. World Conf. on Magnesium, International Magnesium Association, Dayton OH, 1980, pp. 14-18.
  9. D.R. Sadoway and S.N. Flengas, “The Thermodynamics of Tantalum/Niobium Separation by Gas-solid Reaction in Chloride Systems,” Extractive Metallurgy of Refractory Metals, H.Y. Sohn, O.N. Carlson, and J.T. Smith, editors, TMS/AIME, Warrendale PA, 1981, pp. 107-126.
  10. S.N. Flengas and D.R. Sadoway, “Thermodynamic Treatment of Ternary and Quarternary Fused Salt Systems,” Molten Salts, Proceedings of Third International Symposium, G. Mamantov, M. Blander and G.P. Smith, editors, The Electrochemical Society, Pennington NJ, 1981, pp. 68-94.
  11. D.R. Sadoway, “Problems and Research Opportunities in Energy Efficient Metallurgical Processes,” Proceedings of the 16th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, H. Yeh and J. Snell, editors,ASME, New York, 1981, pp. 579-582.
  12. M.H. Sukkar and D.R. Sadoway, “Electrical Conductivity and Thermal Stability Measurements of a Mixed Perovskite Oxide System,” J. Appl. Phys.53, 3686 (1982).
  13. D.R. Sadoway, “The Materials Energy Symbiosis,” Chemtech12 (10), 625 (1982).
  14. A. Abdelmassih and D.R. Sadoway, “Laser Schlieren Studies of Aqueous Zinc Chloride Electrolysis,” Chloride Electrometallurgy, P.D. Parker, editor, TMS/AIME, Warrendale PA, 1983, pp. 43-57.
  15. A. Block-Bolten and D.R. Sadoway, “On Binary P-T Phase Diagrams,” Metall. Trans., B14B, 231 (1983).
  16. D.R. Sadoway, “Research Opportunities in Fused Salt Electrometallurgy,” Electrochemistry Research Needs for Mineral and Primary Materials Processing, T.J. O’Keefe and J.W. Evans, editors, USBM/NSF, 1983, pp. 163-166.
  17. R.P. Singh, J.H. Flint, and D.R. Sadoway, “Digital Signal Analysis of Metal Electroreduction Cells,” Control ’84, Proc. 1st International Symp. on Automatic Control in Mineral Processing and Process Metallurgy, D.G. George et al., editors, SME/TMS/AIME, Warrendale PA, 1984, pp. 319-326.
  18. A.D. McLeod, J.S. Haggerty, and D.R. Sadoway, “Electrical Resistivities of Monocrystalline and Polycrystalline TiB2, J. Am. Ceram. Soc.67, 705 (1984).
  19. G.J. Kipouros and D.R. Sadoway, “Fused Salt Electroplating,” Innovations in Materials Processing, G. Bruggeman and V. Weiss, editors, Plenum Press, New York, 1985, pp. 493-503.
  20. G.J. Kipouros and D.R. Sadoway, “Molybdenum Coatings by Molten Salt Electrolysis,” Energy Reduction Techniques in Metal Electrochemical Processes, R.G. Bautista and R. Wesely, editors, TMS/AIME,Warrendale PA, 1985, pp. 471-478.
  21. J.K. Koziol and D.R. Sadoway, “Electrolyte Flow Patterns in Molten Salt Electrolysis Cells,” Energy Reduction Techniques in Metal Electrochemical Processes, R.G. Bautista and R. Wesely, editors, TMS/AIME,Warrendale PA, 1985, pp. 433-444.
  22. A.D. McLeod, J.S. Haggerty, and D.R. Sadoway, “Inert Electrodes for Aluminum Electrolysis Cells,” Energy Reduction Techniques in Metal Electrochemical Processes, R.G. Bautista and R. Wesely, editors,TMS/AIME, Warrendale PA, 1985, pp. 453-456.
  23. R.P. Singh, J.H. Flint, D.R. Sadoway, “Digital Signal Analysis of Molten Salt Electrolysis Cells,” Energy Reduction Techniques in Metal Electrochemical Processes, R.G. Bautista and R. Wesely, editors, TMS/AIME,Warrendale PA, 1985, pp. 155-162.
  24. S.Y. Yoon, J.H. Flint, G.J. Kipouros, and D.R. Sadoway, “Raman Scattering Studies of Molten Salt Electrolysis of Light Metals,” Energy Reduction Techniques in Metal Electrochemical Processes, R.G. Bautista and R. Wesely, editors, TMS/AIME, Warrendale PA, 1985, pp. 479-490.
  25. G.J. Kipouros, J.H. Flint, and D.R. Sadoway, “Raman Spectroscopic Investigation of AlkaliMetal Hexachloro Compounds of Refractory Metals,” Inorg. Chem.24, 3881, 1985.
  26. D.R. Sadoway, “Electrometallurgy,” Encyclopedia of Materials Science and Engineering, M.B. Bever, editor, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1986, pp. 1444-1447.
  27. D.R. Sadoway, “Halide Metallurgy,” Encyclopedia of Materials Science and Engineering, M.B. Bever, editor, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1986, pp. 2072-2073.
  28. A.D. McLeod, J.S. Haggerty, and D.R. Sadoway, “Inert Anode Materials for Hall Cells,” Light Metals 1986, R.E. Miller, editor, TMS/AIME, Warrendale PA, 1986, pp. 269-273.
  29. S.Y. Yoon, Y. Liu, J.H. Flint, G.J. Kipouros, and D.R. Sadoway, “In Situ Raman Spectroscopic Investigation of Melt Chemistry and Electrode Processes in Laboratoryscale Aluminum Cells,” Light Metals 1986, R.E. Miller, editor, TMS/AIME, Warrendale PA, 1986, pp. 479-482.
  30. S.Y. Yoon, J.H. Flint, G.J. Kipouros, and D.R. Sadoway, “Raman Scattering Studies of Magnesium Electrolysis,” Light Metals 1986, R.E. Miller, editor, TMS/AIME, Warrendale PA, 1986, pp. 1009-1012.
  31. A.D. McLeod, J.S. Haggerty, and D.R. Sadoway, “Inert Anode Materials for Hall Cells,” Proceedings of a conversazione on “The Production of Liquid Aluminum,” E. Ozberk, D.W. Macmillan, and R.I.L. Guthrie, editors, TMS/CIM, series 257, No. 2, 1986, pp. 125139.
  32. G.J. Kipouros and D.R. Sadoway, “Phase Diagram Studies of the Systems, KCl-K3MoCl6 and LiCl-K3MoCl6,” Metall. Trans., B17B, 231, 1986.
  33. M.C. Flemings and D.R. Sadoway, “Approaches to an Integrated Undergraduate Education in Materials Science and Engineering,” Frontiers in Materials Education, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., Vol. 66, L.W. Hobbs and G.L. Liedl, editors, Pittsburgh PA, 1986, pp. 3-11.
  34. A.D. McLeod, J.M. Lihrmann, J.S. Haggerty, and D.R. Sadoway, “Selection and Testing of Inert Anode Materials for Hall Cells,” Light Metals 1987, R.D. Zabreznik, editor, TMS/AIME, Warrendale PA, 1987, pp. 357-365.
  35. S.Y. Yoon and D.R. Sadoway, “Spectroelectrochemical Study of Magnesium Electrolysis,” in Light Metals 1987, R.D. Zabreznik, editor, TMS/AIME, Warrendale PA, 1987, pp. 851-859.
  36. L.H. Ng and D.R. Sadoway, “Phase Separation Kinetics in Immiscible Liquids,” Materials Processing in the Reduced Gravity Environment of Space, Materials Research Society Symposium, Vol. 87, R.H. Doremus and P.C. Nordine, editors, Pittsburgh PA, 1987, pp. 281-283.
  37. J.K. Koziol and D.R. Sadoway, “The Use of Molten Salts as Physical Models for the Study of Solidification in Metals and Semiconductors,” Materials Processing in the Reduced Gravity Environment of Space, Materials Research Society Symposium, Volume 87, R.H. Doremus and P.C. Nordine, editors, Pittsburgh, PA, 1987, pp. 173-181.
  38. D.R. Sadoway, “Fused Salt Electroplating,” Electrodeposition Technology, Theory and Practice,” Proc. Vol. 87, L.T. Romankiw and D.R. Turner, editors, The Electrochemical Society, Pennington NJ, 1987, pp. 397-413.
  39. G.J. Kipouros and D.R. Sadoway, “The Chemistry and Electrochemistry of Magnesium Production,” Advances in Molten Salt Chemistry, Vol. 6, G. Mamantov, C.B. Mamantov and J. Braunstein, editors, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987, pp. 127-209.
  40. D.R. Sadoway, “Raman Spectroscopic Studies of Fused Salt Electrolysis,” Proc. 31st Internat. Cong. Pure and Appl. Chem., Section 7, Phys. Chem., Sofia, Bulgaria, 1987, pp. 172-179.
  41. S.Y. Yoon and D.R. Sadoway, “Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Studies of Molten Salt Electrolysis of Aluminum and Magnesium,” Proceedings of the Joint International Symposium on Molten Salts, G. Mamantovet al., editors, The Electrochemical Society, Proc. Vol. 87, Pennington NJ, 1987, pp. 1011-1017.
  42. C.S. Ritter and D.R. Sadoway, “A Thermochemical Study of the Behavior of Impurities in the Magnetherm Process,” Light Metals 1988, L.G. Boxall, editor, TMS/AIME, Warrendale PA, 1987, pp. 799-805.
  43. F.W. Poulsen, N.H. Andersen, K. Clausen, D.R. Sadoway and L.H. Øÿgendal, “Super Ionic Conduction in Alkali Metal Hexachloro Niobates and Tantalates,” Solid State Ionics88, 271-275 (1988).
  44. J.F. Bredt and D.R. Sadoway, “Cyclic Voltammetry in Liquid Hydrogen Chloride,” Electrochemical Technology in Electronics, L.T. Romankiw and T. Osaka, editors, The Electrochemical Society, Proc. Vol. 88, Pennington NJ, 1988, pp. 361-372.
  45. R.P. Singh and D.R. Sadoway, “Nonelectrolytic Deposition of Metals from Fused Salts,” Electrochemical Technology in Electronics, L.T. Romankiw and T. Osaka, editors, The Electrochemical Society, Proc. Vol. 88, Pennington NJ, 1988, pp. 373-374.
  46. G.J. Kipouros and D.R. Sadoway, “The Electrodeposition of Improved Molybdenum Coatings from Molten Salts by the Use of Electrolyte Additives,” J. Appl. Electrochem.18, 823-830, 1988.
  47. L.H. Ng and D.R. Sadoway, “Density Measurements in the Succinonitrile-Water System,” Can. J. Chem.66, 2428-2430, 1988.
  48. D.R. Sadoway, “Fused Salt Electrolysis of Rare Earth Metals,” Rare Earths, R.G. Bautista and M.M. Wong, editors, TMS, Warrendale PA, 1988, pp. 345-353.
  49. E.E. Shawki, S.N. Flengas and D.R. Sadoway, “Drop Calorimetry Measurements of the Compounds RbNbCl6, CsNbCl6, KTaCl6, and CsTaCl6,” Can. J. Chem.67, 1193-1199, 1989.
  50. D.R. Sadoway, “Fused Salt Electrolysis of Refractory Metals,” Refractory Metals: State of the Art 1988, P. Kumar and R.L. Ammon, editors, TMS, Warrendale PA, 1989, pp. 155-165.
  51. D.R. Sadoway, “Challenges and Opportunities for Nonaqueous Electrochemistry,” editorial commentary, Molten Salts Bulletin, Sels Fondus, No. 40, 1989, pp. 37.
  52. D.R. Sadoway, “A Materials Systems Approach to Selection and Testing of Nonconsumable Anodes for the Hall Cell,” Light Metals 1990, C.A. Bickert, editor, TMS, Warrendale PA, 1990, pp. 403-407.
  53. K. Kim and D.R. Sadoway, “Electrical Conductivity Measurements of Molten Alkaline-Earth Fluorides,” Molten Salts, Proc. Seventh Internat. Symp., PV 90-17, C.A. Hussey, ed., The Electrochemical Society, Pennington NJ, 1990, pp. 174-178.
  54. D.R. Sadoway, “The Synthesis of Refractory-Metal Compounds by Electrochemical Processing in Nonaqueous Media,” Refractory Metals: Extraction, Processing and Applications, K.C. Liddell, D.R. Sadoway and R.G. Bautista, editors, TMS, Warrendale PA, 1990, pp. 213-220.
  55. D.R. Sadoway, “Metallurgical Electrochemistry in Nonaqueous Media,” Proceedings of the Elliott Symposium on Chemical Process Metallurgy, P.J. Koros and G.R. St. Pierre, editors, ISS, Warrendale PA, 1991, pp. 189-196.
  56. D.R. Sadoway, “The Generation of Coatings and Thin Films of Refractory Metals by Electrolysis in Nonaqueous Media,” Tungsten and Tungsten Alloys – Recent Advances, A. Crowson and E.S. Chen, editors, TMS,Warrendale PA, 1991, pp. 225-230.
  57. D.R. Sadoway, “Metallurgical Electrochemistry: the Interface between Materials Science and Molten Salt Chemistry,” Molten Salt Chemistry and Technology, M. Chemla and D. Devilliers, editors, Mat. Sci. Forum, 73-75, Trans Tech Publications Ltd., Zurich, 1991, pp. 555-560.
  58. D.R. Sadoway, “Electrochemical Processing of Refractory Metals,” Journal of Metals43 (7), 15-19 (1991).
  59. K.B. Kim and D.R. Sadoway, “Electrical Conductivity Measurements of Molten Alkaline-earth Fluorides,” J. Electrochem. Soc.139, 1027-1033 (1992).
  60. D.R. Sadoway, “Treatment of Chromate Residue by Direct Electrolysis in Molten Oxides,” Residues and Effluents, Processing and Environmental Considerations, R.G. Reddy, W.P. Imrie, and P.B. Queneau, editors,TMS, Warrendale PA, 1992, pp. 469-473.
  61. K.B. Kim and D.R. Sadoway, “Electrical Conductivity Measurements of Binary Solutions of Molten Alkaline-earth Fluorides,” J. Electrochem. Soc.139 (8), 2132-2137 (1992).
  62. J.N. Hryn and D.R. Sadoway, “Cell Testing of Metal Anodes for Aluminum Electrolysis,” Light Metals 1993, S.K. Das, editor, TMS, Warrendale PA, 1993, pp. 475-483.
  63. D.R. Sadoway, “Synthesis of Advanced Materials by Electrochemical Processing in Nonaqueous Media,” in New Trends and Approaches in Electrochemical Technology, N. Masuko, T. Osaka, and Y. Fukunaka, editors, Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo, 1993, pp. 65-74.
  64. D.R. Sadoway, M.F. Rubner, and M.C. Flemings, “MIT’s New Materials Synthesis and Processing Laboratory: a Vehicle for Incorporating Design into the Undergraduate Curriculum,” in Design Education in Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, M.E. Schlesinger and D.E. Mikkola, editors, TMS, Warrendale, PA, 1993, pp. 93-101.
  65. N.A. Fried, S.L. Schiefelbein, K.G. Rhoads, and D.R. Sadoway, “A New Technique for Electrical Conductivity Measurements in Molten Salts,” in Proc. Internat. Symp. on Molten Salt Chem. and Technol. – 1993, PV 93-9, M.-L. Saboungi and H. Kojima, editors, The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, 1993, pp. 296-305.
  66. J. Hisamoto and D.R. Sadoway, “A Study of the Mechanism of Selenium Electrodeposition from Liquid Hydrogen Chloride,” in Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Electrochemical Processing of Tailored Materials, PV 93-12, R.A. Alkire, N. Masuko, Y. Ito, D.R. Sadoway, and D.J. Economou, editors, The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, 1993, pp. 108-116.
  67. D.R. Sadoway, “New Opportunities for Waste Treatment by Electrochemical Processing in Molten Salts,” in Metals and Materials Waste Reduction, Recovery and Remediation, K.C. Liddell, R.G. Bautista, and R.J.Orth, editors, TMS, Warrendale, PA, 1994, pp. 73-76.
  68. D.R. Sadoway, “New Opportunities for Metals Extraction and Waste Treatment by Electrochemical Processing in Molten Salts,” J. Mater. Res.10, 487-492 (1995).
  69. D.R. Sadoway, “Electrochemical Processing in Nonaqueous Media,” in Proceedings of the International Harald A. Øye Symposium, M. Sørlie, T. Østvold, and R. Huglen, editors, University of Trondheim, Trondheim, 1995, pp. 299-312.
  70. R. de Neufville, S.R. Connors, F.R. Field, III, D. Marks, D.R. Sadoway, and R.D. Tabors, “The Electric Car Unplugged,” Technology Review99, 30-36 (1996).
  71. T.H. Okabe, T.N. Deura, T. Oishi, K. Ono, and D.R. Sadoway, “Electrochemical Deoxidation of Yttrium-Oxygen Solid Solutions,” J. Alloys Comp.237, 150-154 (1996).
  72. H.B. Shapiro and D.R. Sadoway, “Densities in the Liquid Hydrogen Chloride Solvent System,” J. Phys. Chem.100 (14), 5956-5963 (1996).
  73. T.H. Okabe, T.N. Deura, T. Oishi, K. Ono, and D.R. Sadoway, “Thermodynamic Properties of Oxygen in Yttrium-Oxygen Solid Solutions,” Metall. Materials Trans. B27B, 839-845 (1996).
  74. R.B. Michnick and D.R. Sadoway, “Phase Diagram of Butyronitrile-Chloroethane Determined by Differential Thermal Analysis,” J. Phys. Chem.100, 19628-19631 (1996).
  75. S.S. Nissen and D.R. Sadoway, “Perfluorocarbon (PFC) Generation in Laboratory-Scale Aluminum Reduction Cells,” Light Metals 1997, R. Huglen, editor, TMS, Warrendale, PA, 1997, pp. 159-164.
  76. R.B. Michnick, K.G. Rhoads, and D.R. Sadoway, “Relative Dielectric Constant Measurements in the Butyronitrile-Chloroethane System at Subambient Temperatures,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 144, 2392-2398 (1997).
  77. S.L. Schiefelbein and D.R. Sadoway, “A High-accuracy, Calibration-free Technique for Measuring the Electrical Conductivity of Molten Oxides,” Metall. Materials Trans. B28 B, 1141-1149 (1997).
  78. Y-M. Chiang, Y-I. Jang, H. Wang, B. Huang, D.R. Sadoway, and P. Ye, “Synthesis of LiCoO2 by Decomposition and Intercalation of Hydroxides,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 145, 887-891 (1998).
  79. G. Ceder, Y-M. Chiang, D.R. Sadoway, M.K. Aydinol, Y-I. Jang, and B. Huang, “Identification of cathode materials for lithium batteries guided by first-principles calculations,” Nature392, 694-696 (1998).
  80. D.R. Sadoway, “Advances and Innovations in the Extraction of Aluminum and Magnesium,” Molten Salt Chemistry and Technology 5, Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Molten Salt Chemistry and Technology, Dresden, Germany, August 1997, ed. H. Wendt, Molten Salt Forum Vols. 5-6, Trans Tech Publications, Zurich, 1998, pp. 43-48.
  81. G.J. Kipouros and D.R. Sadoway, “Toward New Technologies for the Production of Lithium,” JOM50 (5) 24-26 (1998).
  82. Y-I. Jang, B. Huang, Y-M. Chiang, and D.R. Sadoway, “Stabilization of LiMnO2 in the a-NaFeO2 Structure Type by LiAlO2 Addition,” Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, 1 (1), 13-16 (1998).
  83. S.L. Schiefelbein, N.A. Fried, K.G. Rhoads, and D.R. Sadoway, “A high-accuracy, calibration-free technique for measuring the electrical conductivity of liquids,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.69 (9), 3308-3313 (1998).
  84. B. Huang, Y-I. Jang, Y-M. Chiang, and D.R. Sadoway, “Electrochemical Evaluation of LiCoO2 Synthesized by Decomposition and Intercalation of Hydroxides for Lithium-ion Battery Applications,” J. Appl.Electrochem.28 (12), 1365-1369 (1998).
  85. T.H. Okabe and D.R. Sadoway, “Metallothermic Reduction as an Electronically Mediated Reaction,” J. Mater. Res., 13 (12), 3372-3377 (1998).
  86. P.P. Soo, B. Huang, Y-I. Jang, Y-M. Chiang, D.R. Sadoway, and A.M. Mayes, “Rubbery Block Copolymer Electrolytes for Solid-state Rechargeable Batteries,” J. Electrochem. Soc.146 (1), 32-37 (1999).
  87. T.H. Okabe, H. Zhu, and D.R. Sadoway, “Materials Synthesis by Metallothermic Reduction,” in Proceedings of the International Terje Østvold Symposium, H.A. Øye and O. Wærnes, editors, The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, 1998, pp. 77-88.
  88. Y.-M. Chiang, D.R. Sadoway, Y.-I. Jang, B. Huang, and H. Wang, “High Capacity, Temperature-Stable Lithium Aluminum Manganese Oxide Cathodes for Rechargeable Batteries,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett., 2(3), 107-110 (1999).
  89. Y.-I. Jang, B. Huang, H. Wang, D.R. Sadoway, G. Ceder, Y.-M. Chiang, H. Liu, and H. Tamura, “LiAlyCo1-yO2 Intercalation Cathode for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries,” J. Electrochem. Soc.146 (3), 862-868 (1999).
  90. H. Wang, Y.-I. Jang, B. Huang, D.R. Sadoway, and Y.-M. Chiang, “TEM Study of Electrochemical Cycling Induced Damage and Disorder in LiCoO2 Cathodes for Rechargeable Batteries,” J. Electrochem. Soc.146(2), 473-480 (1999).
  91. H. Zhu and D.R. Sadoway, “The Electrode Kinetics of Perfluorocarbon (PFC) Generation,” Light Metals 1999, C.E. Eckert, editor, TMS, Warrendale, PA, 1999, pp. 241-246.
  92. H. Wang, Y.-I. Jang, B. Huang, Y.-M. Chiang, and D.R. Sadoway, “Electron Microscopic Characterization of Electrochemically Cycled LiCoO2 and Li(Al,Co)O2 Battery Cathodes,” J. Power Sources, 81-82, 594-598 (1999).
  93. Y.-I. Jang, B. Huang, H. Wang, G.R. Maskaly, G. Ceder, D.R. Sadoway, and Y.-M. Chiang, “Synthesis and Characterization of LiAlyCo1-yO2 and LiAlyNi1-yO2,” J. Power Sources, 81-82, 589-593 (1999).
  94. D.R. Sadoway, “Materials Science as a Vehicle for Teaching Mainstream Chemistry,” J. Mater. Ed.21 (1 & 2), 5-10 (1999).
  95.  Y.-I. Jang, B. Huang, H. Wang, D.R. Sadoway, Y.-M. Chiang, “Electrochemical Cycling-Induced Spinel Formation in High-Charge-Capacity Orthorhombic LiMnO2,” J. Electrochem. Soc.146 (9), 3217-3223 (1999).
  96. H. Zhu and D.R. Sadoway, “An  Electroanalytical Study of Electrode Reactions on Carbon Anodes During Electrolytic Production of Aluminum,” Light Metals 2000, R.D. Peterson, editor, TMS, Warrendale, PA, 2000, pp. 257-263.
  97. Donald L. Anglin, Donald R. Sadoway, Battery, in AccessScience@McGraw-Hill, http://www.accessscience.com/server-java/Arknoid/science/AS/Encyclopedia/0/07/Est_075200_frameset.html , last modified: July 24, 2002.
  98. Y.-I. Jang, B. Huang, F.C. Chou, D.R. Sadoway, and Y.-M. Chiang, “Magnetic characterization of l-MnO2 and Li2Mn2O4 prepared by electrochemical cycling of LiMn2O4,” J. Appl. Phys., 87 (10), 7382-7388 (2000).
  99. H. Zhu and D.R. Sadoway, “Towards Elimination of Anode Effect and PFC Emissions via Current Shunting,” Light Metals 2001, J.L. Anjier, editor, TMS, Warrendale, PA, 2001, pp. 303-307.
  100. D.R. Sadoway, “Inert Anodes for the Hall-Héroult Cell: The Ultimate Materials Challenge,” JOM, 53 (5), 34-35 (2001).
  101. D.R. Sadoway, A.M. Mayes, B. Huang, S. Mui, P.P. Soo, D.H. Staelin, and C.C. Cook, “High Energy Density, Thin-Film, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries for Marine Field Operations,” J. Power Sources, 97-98, 674-676 (2001).
  102. D.R. Sadoway, A.M. Mayes, B. Huang, P.E. Trapa, P.P. Soo, and P. Bannerjee, “Self-doped Block Copolymer Electrolytes for Solid-State, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries,” J. Power Sources97-98, 621-623 (2001).
  103. A.G. Ruzette, P.P. Soo, D.R. Sadoway, and A.M. Mayes, “Melt-Formable Block Copolymer Electrolytes for Lithium Rechargeable Batteries,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 148 (6), A537-A543 (2001).
  104. N.A. Fried, K.G. Rhoads, and D.R. Sadoway, “Transference Number Measurements of TiO2 – BaO Melts by Stepped-Potential Chronoamperometry,” Electrochim. Acta46 (22), 3351-3358 (2001).
  105. H. Zhu and D.R. Sadoway, “Synthesis of Nanoscale Particles of Ta and Nb3Al by Homogeneous Reduction in Liquid Ammonia,” J. Mater. Res.,16 (9), 2544-2549 (2001).
  106. G.J. Kipouros and D.R. Sadoway, “A Thermochemical Analysis of the Production of Anhydrous MgCl2,” J. Light Met., 1 (2), 111-117 (2001).
  107. P.E. Trapa, B. Huang, D.R. Sadoway, and A.M. Mayes, “Block Copolymer Electrolytes Synthesized by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) for Solid-State, Thin-Film Lithium Batteries,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett., 5 (5) A85-A88 (2002).
  108. S.C. Mui, P.E. Trapa, B. Huang, P.P. Soo, M.I. Lozow, T.C. Wang, R.E. Cohen, A.N. Mansour, S. Mukerjee, A.M. Mayes, and D.R. Sadoway, “Block Copolymer-Templated Nanocomposite Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 149 (12), A1610-A1615 (2002).
  109. D.J. Harris, T.J. Bonagamba, K. Schmidt-Rohr, P.P. Soo, D.R. Sadoway, and A.M. Mayes, “Solid-State NMR Investigation of Block Copolymer Electrolyte Dynamics,” Macromolecules, 35 (9), 3772-3774 (2002).
  110. A.C. Ducret, D. Khetpal, and D.R. Sadoway “Electrical Conductivity and Transference Number Measurements of FeO – CaO – MgO – SiO2 Melts,” Molten Salts, Proc. Thirteenth Internat. Symp., H.C. Delong, R.W. Bradshaw, M. Matsunaga, G.R. Stafford, and P.C. Trulove, eds., The Electrochemical Society, Pennington NJ, 2002, pp. 347-353.
  111. H. Zhu and D.R. Sadoway, “Towards Elimination of the Anode Effect and Perfluorocarbon Emissions from Hall-Héroult Cells,” Molten Salts, Proc. Thirteenth Internat. Symp., H.C. Delong, R.W. Bradshaw, M.Matsunaga, G.R. Stafford, and P.C. Trulove, eds., The Electrochemical Society, Pennington NJ, 2002, pp. 411-418.
  112. D.R. Sadoway and A.M. Mayes, “Portable Power: Advanced Rechargeable Lithium Batteries,” MRS Bulletin27 (8), 590-594 (2002).
  113. Y.-I. Jang, F.C. Chou, B. Huang, D.R. Sadoway, and Y.-M. Chiang, “Magnetic characterization of orthorhombic LiMnO2 and electrochemically transformed spinel LixMnO2 (x<1),” J. Phys. Chem. Solids64 (12), 2525-2533 (2003).
  114. D.R. Sadoway, “Block and graft copolymer electrolytes for high-performance, solid-state, lithium batteries,” J. Power Resources129 (1)1-3 (2004).
  115. L.M. Bartolo, S.C. Glotzer, J.I. Khan, A.C. Powell, IV, D.R. Sadoway, and K.M. Anderson, “MatDL.org: The Materials Digital Library and the National Science Digital Library Program,” J. Mater. Ed . 26 (3-4), 213-218 (2004).
  116. Patrick E. Trapa, You-Yeon Won, Simon C. Mui, Elsa Olivetti, Biying Yuang, D. R. Sadoway, Anne M. Mayes, and Steven Dallek, “Rubbery Graft Copolymer Electrolytes for Solid-State, Thin-Film Lithium Batteries,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 152 (1), A1-A5 (2005).
  117. Sang-Woog Ryu, Patrick E. Trapa, Solar C. Olugebefola, Juan A. Gonzalez-Leon, D. R. Sadoway, and Anne M. Mayes, “Effect of Counter Ion Placement on Conductivity in Single-Ion Conducting Block Copolymer Electrolytes,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 152 (1), A158-A163 (2005).
  118. A.M. Johnson, D.R. Sadoway, M.J. Cima, and R. Langer, “Design and Testing of an Impedance-Based Sensor for Monitoring Drug Delivery,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 152 (1), H6-H11 (2005).
  119. L.M. Bartolo, C.S. Lowe, D.R. Sadoway, A.C. Powell, IV, and S.C. Glotzer, “NSDL MatDL: Exploring digital library roles,” D-Lib Magazine11 (3), (2005).
  120. M. Kurian, M.E. Galvin, P.E. Trapa, D.R. Sadoway, and A.M. Mayes, “Single-ion conducting polymer-silicate nanocomposite electrolytes for lithium battery applications,” Electrochim. Acta, 50 (10), 2125-2134 (2005).
  121. L. Bartolo, C. Lowe, D.R. Sadoway, and P.E. Trapa, “Large introductory science courses & digital libraries,” in Proceedings of the 5th ACM/IEEE-CS joint conference on Digital libraries , ACM, New York, NY, p. 366.
  122. N. Ariel, G. Ceder, D. R. Sadoway, and E.A. Fitzgerald, “Electrochemically Controlled Transport of Lithium through Ultra-thin SiO2 ,” J. Appl. Phys., 98 , 023516 (2005).
  123. P.E. Trapa, M.H. Acar, D.R. Sadoway, and A.M. Mayes, “Synthesis and Characterization of Single-ion Graft Copolymer Electrolytes,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 152 (12), A2281-A2284 (2005).
  124. L.M. Bartolo, S.C. Glotzer, C.S. Lowe, A.C. Powell, IV, D.R. Sadoway, J.A. Warren, V.K. Tewary, and K. Rajan, “NSF NSDL Materials Digital Library & MSE education,” J. Mater. Ed.28 (1), 21-26 (2006).
  125. P.E. Trapa, A.B. Reyes, R.S. Das Gupta, A.M. Mayes, and D.R. Sadoway, “Polarization in Cells Containing Single-ion Graft Copolymer Electrolytes,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 153 (6), A1098-A1101 (2006).
  126. S.C. Mui, J. Jasinski, V.J. Leppert, M. Mitome, D.R. Sadoway, and A.M. Mayes, “Microstructure Effects on the Electrochemical Kinetics of Vanadium Pentoxide Thin-film Cathodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 153 (7), A1372-A1377 (2006).
  127. E.A. Olivetti, J.H. Kim, D.R. Sadoway, A. Asatekin, and A.M. Mayes, “Sol-gel Synthesis of Vanadium Oxide within a Block Copolymer Matrix,” Chem. Mater.; (Article); 2006; 18 (12), 2828-2833.  DOI: 10.1021/cm060119s
  128. J.L. Lutkenhaus, E.A. Olivetti, E.A. Verploegen, B.M. Cord, D.R. Sadoway, and P.T. Hammond, “Anisotropic Structure and Transport in Self-Assembled Layered Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites,” Langmuir 23 (16), 8515-8521 (2007).
  129. A.H.C. Sirk and D.R. Sadoway, “Electrochemical Synthesis of Diamondlike Carbon Films,” J. Electrochem. Soc.155 (5), E49-E55 (2008).
  130. E.A. Olivetti, K.C. Avery, I. Tankguchi, D.R. Sadoway, and A.M. Mayes, “Electrochemical Characterization of Vanadium Oxide Nanostructured Electrode,” J. Electrochem. Soc.155 (7), A488-A493 (2008).
  131. L. Sibille, D.R. Sadoway, A. Sirk, P. Tripathy, O. Melendez, E. Standish, J.A. Dominguez, D.M. Stefanescu, P.A. Curreri, and S. Poizeau, “Recent Advances in Scale-up Development of Molten Regolith Electrolysis for Oxygen Production in support of a Lunar Base,” Proceedings of the 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Paper AIAA 2009-659, AIAA, Arlington, VA, 2009.
  132. A.T. Vai, J.A. Yurko, D.H. Wang, and D.R. Sadoway, “Molten Oxide Electrolysis for Lunar Oxygen Generation Using In-Situ Resources,” Jim Evans Honorary Symposium, eds. B.Q. Li, B.G. Thomas, L. Zhang, F.M. Doyle, and A.P. Campbell, TMS Annual Meeting 2010, Seattle Washington, p. 301-308.
  133. A.H.C. Sirk, D.R. Sadoway, L. Sibille, “Direct Electrolysis of Molten Lunar Regolith for the Production of Oxygen and Metals on the Moon” ECS Transactions28 (6), 367-373 (2010).
  134. W. Wei, X. Mao, L.A. Ortiz, and D. R. Sadoway, “Oriented silver oxide nanostructures synthesized through a template-free electrochemical route,” J. Mater. Chem., 21, 432-438, (2011), DOI: 10.1039/C0JM02214D, Paper.
  135. D. Wang, A.J. Gmitter, and D.R. Sadoway, “Production of oxygen gas and liquid metal by electrochemical decomposition of molten iron oxide,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158 (6), E51-E54 (2011).
  136. Q. Hu, S. Osswald, R. Daniel, Y. Zhu, S. Wesel, L. Ortiz, and D.R. Sadoway, “Graft copolymer-based lithium-ion battery for high-temperature operation,” J. Power Sources196, (13), 5604-5610 (2011), DOI: 10.1016/jpowsour.2011.03.001.
  137. H.A.G. Stern, D.R. Sadoway, and J.W. Tester, “Copper Sulfate Reference Electrode,” J. Electroanal. Chem., 659, 143-150 (2011).
  138. H. Kim, J. Paramore, A. Allanore, and D.R. Sadoway, “Electrolysis of molten iron oxide with an iridium anode: the role of electrolyte basicity,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 158 (10), E101-E1-5 (2011).
  139. D.J. Bradwell, S. Osswald, W. Wei, S.A. Barriga, G. Ceder, and D.R. Sadoway, “Recycling ZnTe, CdTe, and other compound semiconductors by ambipolar electrolysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 133, 19971–19975 (2011).
  140. S. Poizeau and D.R. Sadoway, “Towards a Design Tool for Self-heated Cells Producing Liquid Metal by Electrolysis,” in Light Metals, TMS, Hoboken, NJ, pp. 387-392 (2011).
  141. H. Kim, D. A. Boysen, D.J. Bradwell, B. Chung, K. Jiang, A.A. Tomaszowska, K. Wang, W. Wei, and D.R. Sadoway, “Thermodynamic Properties of Calcium-Bismuth Alloys Determined by Emf Measurements,”Electrochim. Acta60, 154-162 (2012).
  142. D.J. Bradwell, H. Kim, A.H.C. Sirk and D.R. Sadoway, “Magnesium-antimony liquid metal battery for stationary energy storage,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 134 (4), 1895-1897 (2012).
  143. A. Locknar, R. Mitchell, J. Rankin, and D.R. Sadoway, “Integration of Information Literacy Components into a Large First-Year Lecture-Based Chemistry Course,” J. Chem. Ed., 89, 487-491 (2012).
  144. S. Poizeau, H. Kim, J.M. Newhouse, B.L. Spatocco, and D.R. Sadoway, “Determination and modeling of the thermodynamic properties of liquid calcium–antimony alloys,” Electrochim. Acta, 76, 8-15 (2012).
  145. H. Kim, D.A. Boysen, J.M. Newhouse, B.L. Spatocco, B. Chung, P.J. Burke, D.J. Bradwell, K. Jiang, A.A. Tomaszowska , K. Wang, W. Wei , L.A. Ortiz , S.A. Barriga , S.M. Poizeau , and D.R. Sadoway, “Liquid Metal Batteries: Past, Present, and Future,” Chem. Rev., DOI: 10.1021/cr300205k (2012).
  146. J.M. Newhouse, S. Poizeau, H. Kim, B.L. Spatocco, and D.R. Sadoway, “Thermodynamic properties of calcium–magnesium alloys determined by emf measurements,” Electrochim. Acta, 91, 293-301 (2013).
  147. H. Kim, D.A. Boysen, T. Ouchi, and D.R. Sadoway, “Calcium-Bismuth Electrodes for Large-Scale Energy Storage (Liquid Metal Batteries),” J. Power Sources, 241, 239-248 (2013).
  148. A. Allanore, L. Yin, and D.R. Sadoway, “A new anode material for oxygen evolution in molten oxide electrolysis,” Nature, 497(7449), 353–356 (2013), doi:10.1038/nature12134.
  149. S. Poizeau and D.R. Sadoway, “Application of the Molecular Interaction Volume Model (MIVM) to calcium-based liquid alloys of systems forming high-melting intermetallics,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 135(22), 8260-8265 (2013).
  150. H. Yin, X. Mao, D. Tang, W. Xiao, L. Xing, H. Zhu, D. Wang, and D.R. Sadoway, “Capture and electrochemical conversion of CO2 to value-added carbon and oxygen by molten salt electrolysis,” Energy Environ. Sci., 6, 1538-1545 (2013).
  151.  Q. Hu, A. Caputo, and D.R. Sadoway, “Solid-state Graft Copolymer Electrolytes for Lithium Battery Applications,” J. Vis. Exp. (78), e50067, doi:10.3791/50067 (2013).
  152. D.H. Kelley and D.R. Sadoway, “Mixing in a liquid metal electrode,” Phys. Fluids26, 057102 (2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4875815.